Religion, Trade & Policy.

By Sir WILLIAM PETTY, Fellow of the Royal Society.

Ut parêre Greges, Armenta, atque Arva, Colono ;
Ut varif Gentes Uniri fdere certo
Possint: Edoceo, Ponique Horrentia Martis
Arma. Favete, precor dij qui posuistis et illa!
Surgite jam, Superi ! Vastisque incumbite Cptis !
Ut Populi coëant; Quingentos qui, suprà et, Annos
Discrepuêre? Unum et fiant tua Regna,   JACOBE.

An Essay in Political Arithmetick concerning Ireland.

Tending to shew

1. The Political Anatomy of that Kingdom.

2. The Commotions and Bruileries, that Happen'd there from Anno 1641, to Anno 1666.

3. The Foreign Trade of that Nation Anno 1685.

4. The Proportion between the English and Irish both in Number and Weight.

5. Several Decays in Ireland between the year 83 & 87.

6. The Waxing and Waning of the King's Revenue there, in the said Five Years, with the Causes thereof.

7. That Estates in Ireland may be Improv'd from Two to Three, with a Perpetual Settlement of the same, and Rooting up all the Causes of Discords, which have infested that Countrey for above 500 Years.

8. That therewith the Revenue of the Church of England, & of particular Landlords, there may be increased from 3 to 4.

9. And the King's Revenue from 4 to 5 without being a sensible Burden to the People; so as the King may have Six millions for every 4th. Year, supposed to be Warr.

10. How Fears and jealousies concerning Religion, & even the Test, may vanish of themselves.

11. How the King's Subjects may be doubled in 20 Years, & also United.

12. That the King of England's Territories and People may in Weight and Substance be little inferior to those of France, by a safe and sufficient Liberty of Conscience perpetuated.

13. That there may be a real Mare Clausum begun in Ireland; and that the King has a more Natural Right to Sovereignty within the same, than any of his circumjacent Neighbors.

The Contents of a Treatise, concerning Ireland.

  1. It Propounds a Perpetual Settlement of Ireland, with a Natural Improvement and Union of England and Ireland, by Transplanting a Million of People (without Distinction of Parties) out of Ireland into England : Leaving in Ireland onely enough Hands to manage as many Cattle as that Countrey will feed. [Preface]
  2. Against which it is Objected, That the Costs and Losses of the said Transplantation, and Cattle Trade, will be 4 Millions of Money. In Answer to which [Preface]
  3. The said Grand Proposal is divided into Six Points; and each of them Explain'd. [Chapter i]
  4. There are Twenty Assertions and Suppositions, express'd in Terms of Number, Weight and Measure; by which the said Six Points are Discussed. Vizt. [Chapter ii]

  1. How the People of England and Ireland do now stand mix'd, as to their Proportions between Catholiks and others; and how the same will be, after the above Transplantations: With Motives to all Persons and Parties to comply therewith. [Chapter iii]
  2. That the Lands of England will be better'd by 70 Millions Sterling, or a Third Part. [Chapter iv]
  3. That England will gain by Ireland 1500 M L per Ann. and as much as it gaineth by all the World besides. [Chapter v]
  4. That the real and personal Estate of Ireland will rise from 2 to 3. [Chapter vi]
  5. That the Revenues of the Church of England will rise from 3 to 4 ; and the King's from 4 to 5 : Besides an Addition of 100 m Pound per Ann. for extraordinary Church Uses. [Chapter vii]
  6. That the Causes of Discord, which have continued in Ireland above 500 Years, arising from the Difference of Names, Births, Extractions, Language, Customes, Habits, and Religion, will all cease and vanish. An Estate shall be so settled, as to be coined into better Money, than that of Gold and Silver. [Chapter viii., p. 570.]
  7. A Repetition and Enlargement of the Premisses. [Chapter ix]


  1. That the said Transplantation is impracticable and Utopian.
  2. The said Cattle-Trade is so likewise.
  3. That Men will comply with neither, altho' practicable and Profitable, out of mere Caprice and Perverseness.
  4. That the Irish will Hate and Scorn the said Transplantation, as the Abolishment of their Nation; which they will not think compensable by all the Advantages abovementioned.
  5. The Protestants of England will be frighted to see the Proportion between Catholicks and themselves, which is now, as 280 to one, shrink to 9 for one.
  6. There wants an indifferent judicature, or natural justice, to make the Estates of Ireland, as firm as is propounded.
  7. That these extraordinary Proposals of Trans plantation, Cattle, Trade, and judicature, are unnecessary: For that matters are already so well in Ireland without them.

Upon which Account the following Particulars are sell down. Vizt.
1. The Difference of the Price of Lands 1687, from what they were, 1683.
2. The like Difference in Value of Houses, in Cities, Ports and Market- Towns.
3. The like in Cattle of all Sorts.
4. How much the People of Ireland have spent in the Years 1684, 1685, and 1686, in Drinks, and other Superfluities, above the Level of the precedent Years.
5. The Value of Merchandise exported in the Years 1685, and 1686, without Return.
6. An Estimate of the Moneys, Plate and other fine Goods and Furniture; which were, in the said 2 Years, conveyed out of Ireland, or other ways withdrawn from Currant Uses.
7. How much the Catholicks of Ireland have Gained and how much they have Lost, by the Transactions of the said Two Years.
8. What Effect the said Differences must have upon the Expense of the People, and upon such Branches of the King's Revenue, as depend thereon.
9. That the Fall of Excise in the Year 1687, is not caused by the present Army's being Irish.
10. A Computation of the different Values of the English and Irish, as to their Persons, and Personal Estates.
11. The Causes of some Decays in Ireland, distinctly and respectively charged both upon the English and Irish.
12. The State of Foreign Trade Anno 1685, with what Share each of both Parties had therein.
13. The Causes of several Fears and Jealousies in Ireland.
14. The Fear of Unsettlement of Land-Estates in Ireland may be, that the Acts of Settlement and Explanation were not grounded upon the several Accounts here enumerated.
15. Several Conclusions drawn from the said Accounts.
16. That Partiality in justice is another Cause of Fears, with an exact Account of the Lord Dunsany's Wrongs and Relief.


The 8th Objection.

[8]. That all the abovesaid Proposals are uncouth, wild, Monstrous, and Chymerical.
To which is answer'd, that if the said Proposals do not Please, because they seem to wast and dispeople Ireland: Another is put, of a quite contrary Nature, in the Room of it; Tending to people not onely Ireland, but all his Majesty's Kingdoms fully, and to double their Present Number, within 25 years.



That the Grand judicature and Council above-mentioned, will be of Use not onely to adjudge Controversies as aforesaid, and manage the Transplantation or Increase of People here Propounded; but also to perpetuale and improve the Liberty of Conscience lately granted by his Majestie.
Mention of another Essay, to shew that the King of England's Subjects and Territories are little inferior to those of France.
A Series of Matters relating to the Forfeitures of Ireland; with a Dialogue concerning- the same.